A new study has found that South Africa’s fossil fuel subsidies tripled between 2018 and 2023, rising to R118-billion from R39-billion over the period, with subsidies having been increased largely in response to the surge in fuel prices following Russia’s invasion of Ukraine in 2022. Titled ‘Blackouts and Backsliding: Energy Subsidies in South Africa 2023’, the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) report calculates that oil and gas subsidies more than doubled over the five years to R52-billion compared with R23-billion in 2018.